Academic Writing
Overview
Academic writing is a record of a new scientific research result or creative insights and knowledge on a scientific subject.
Category
Academic writings can be categorized according to the subject they belong to. Such as Social Science, Literature, Historical, etc.
Academic writings can also be categorized according the to the content. Academic writing focus on theories try to find out the basic rules of every subject. Application Researchers always try to make knowledge into production.
Features
Academic writing must have the following qualities to be well recognized.
Science: the writer must not be effected by his personal preference nor make up stuff. He should follow the truth shown by the experiment.
Creation: the goal of science research is to find out new knowledge. Academic writers should have his own opinion.
Logic: academic writing is a kind of argumentative article. It is written in order to persuade, to show some facts. It has to have its own logical system.
Understandability: as all writings, academic writing must be understandable with no logical, grammatical nor any other problems.
Writing Methods
There are several steps in writing methods.
One, choose a topic.
Topic is one of the most important part in academic writing. Only meaningful topic is worth researching, but it should not be out of one’s league.
Two, research following the topic. This part has little relationship with writing so it will be skipped here.
Three, write according to the result of researching.
Academic writing often includes introduction, body and a conclusion.
Introduction
Introduction is the first part of a paper and services two essential purposes: to capture the reader’s interests and to explain clearly what the paper is about. Introduction is an important road map for the rest of the paper.
A good introduction should have the content of topic or subject, necessary background information, purpose and explanation of arrangement of the report.
Introduction shows that the general research area is important, central, interesting, problematic, or relevant in some way, or why people should read your paper.
Body
Body is where to show the result. Try to persuade your audience with the process of the experiment or the logic you come up with the conclusion. It differs a lot as the topic changes.
Conclusion
The main purpose of the conclusion section is to show that the mail purpose of the piece of writing has been achieved. It should recall the issues raised in the introduction and come to a clear conclusion. It should clearly signal to the reader that the writing is finished.
The conclusion should restate purpose and scope, review the main section or units of the discussion, reiterate the principal points or findings and assert the validity of approach.
Common problem
Too much detail, too long, the conclusion section should be short, often the conclusion section Is as little as 2.5% of an entire piece.
Be concise and add to the overall quality and impact of the paper, this is your final statement about the topic, thus it can make a great impact on the reader.
Failure to comment on larger, more significant issues. In the introduction your task was to move from general to specific, in the concluding section your task is to move from the specific to general.
Don’t simply repeat your introduction, try to talk about topic in a new way. The tone of your conclusion is different because the reader has finished your paper.
Never contain any new information.
Don’t apologize for doing a poor job resenting the material, this will ruin your efforts.



Reference:
  1. Baidu Baike http://baike.baidu.com/view/222616.htm#3
  2. Google Translation http://translate.google.com.hk
  3. “Academic Reading” Lina, PPT from Wenku.baidu.com uploaded by cyberizen.